Journal of Kerbala University <p>The Journal of Kerbala University (JUK) is is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal which aims to publish biannually finest research articles in social medical, natural sciences, engineering and technology and other subject areas. Submitted papers should describe original and previously unpublished works, not currently under review by another. </p> <p>Provides a platform for dissemination of research findings, new research areas and techniques, conceptual developments and articles with practical applications and contribution to society.<br />The research papers are subject to scientific evaluation by professional panelists and they are published in English languages.<br /><br /><br /><br /></p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Mohanad M Ahmed) (Israa K. Ali) Wed, 13 Dec 2023 10:27:30 +0000 OJS 60 Phylogeny of E-coli and Klebsiella pneumonia Affecting Camels in Iraq/ Reveiw <p>Camels are one of the important types of semi-ruminants in Iraq supporting people in arid and semiarid areas with beef and milk. Pneumonia is the second important disease in camel following skin affections in occurrence and economical significance. Consequently, this research aimed to focus on the causative agent causing pneumonia in order to make programs of prevention and treatment especially with the emergence of antibiotic resistance. <em>E-coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella</em> <em>pneumonia</em> are the most common bacteria isolated from camels with pneumonia in Iraq. One of the principles used to control the antimicrobial susceptibility is to detect the species of the pathogen with molecular methods to make relation with others in Iraq and close countries. Phylogeny of <em>E-coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> has done to detect the relation of these strain with others detected in neighbor countries in which it was 99% relative of <em>E-coli</em> to those isolated in Egypt and it was 97% relative of <em>Klebsiella</em> to those isolated in India. This will be significant for future studies to identify the genes responsible for resistance in order to find useful drugs and vaccines. It is helpful to avoid dealing with countries having isolates different from those isolated in Iraq because of the wide variety between the phylogeny of their sequence like Germany and China.</p> Muthanna Hussain, Khalefa Mansour, Saad Ghmeiss, Ihab AL-Shemmari Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Kerbala Wed, 13 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Immunological Implications of Diabetes and Hypertension as Pre-existing Comorbidities in Iraqi Patients with COVID-19 <p><strong>Abstract—</strong>COVID-19 patients with comorbidities are associated with increased severity of lung injury, intensive care unit and mortality. These comorbidities are commonly hypertension and diabetes. This study investigated the immunological implications of COVID-19 in patients with hypertension and diabetes with the aim of detecting significant implications with the disease severity. Patients between 30 and 65 years, diagnosed as SARS-COV-2 infection admitted to Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital Kerbala, Iraq were recruited. Clinical symptoms were evaluated and laboratory measurement of total and differential leukocyte counts, serum levels of D-dimer, interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein were conducted.</p> <p>&nbsp;A total of 150 admitted COVID-19 patients met criteria and were recruited. Evidence of neutrophilia with lymphopenia was observed in patients with comorbidity. Differential neutrophil percentage highest among those with both diabetes and hypertension i.e. 89.58±9.17 % followed by 78.81±9.93 % for diabetic group, then 62.24±14.42 % for hypertensive, and 54.25±11.84 % for patients with no comorbidity. Differential lymphocyte percentage was lowest among those with both diabetes and hypertension i.e. 2.47±1.24 % followed by 14.29±5.29 % for diabetic group, then 26.73±6.53 for hypertensive, and 33.14±9.35 % for patients with no comorbidity, with significant difference with the groups was observed (p &lt; 0.05). Levels of D-dimer, IL-6 and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in patients with comorbidities compared to those without (p &lt; 0.01). D-dimer and C-reactive protein levels were higher in diabetics, IL-6 inclined towards hypertensive.&nbsp;</p> <p>The findings indicate a significant immunological implications of the pre-existence of diabetes and hypertension among COVID-19 patients which include aggravation of COVID-19 associated immunopathies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sattar J Rahi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Kerbala Wed, 13 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular detection of virulence factors encoding genes in Escherichia coli isolated from diarrhea in children under 5 years <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The present study was carried out to investigate the bacteria that cause diarrhea in children, as well as the virulence factors possessed by <em>Escherichia coli</em> bacteria isolated from the stool of children under 5 years of age. with symptoms of diarrhea.&nbsp; The bacterial isolates were diagnosed using the Vitek 2 technique, then 40 <em>E. coli </em>isolates were subjected to molecular detection by PCR, and the selection of samples was based on examining the stool sample under a light microscope, which contained pus cells or red blood cells .&nbsp; The results showed that the incidence of diarrhea in males (57.5%) 46 was higher than that of females (45%) 34, and the statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between infected males and females (<em>P</em> = 0.02) . Molecular detection results showed that 20 (50%) of bacterial isolates carry genes (STX1, STX2, eae, bfpA), which belong to the pathotypes of <em>E. coli</em> bacteria that cause diarrhea (DEC), and that 10 (50%) are bacterial isolates&nbsp;&nbsp; Enteropathogenic EPEC, and 10 (50%) isolates carrying two genes together (STX1 &amp; STX2) belong to the intestinal hemorrhagic bacteria EHEC, and it was noted that there was no clear significant difference between the two strains (<em>P</em> <u>&gt;</u> 0.05).&nbsp; Bacterial isolates 8(80) carrying the gene (eae) belonging to atypical enteropathogenic bacteria&nbsp;&nbsp; aEPEC, and two bacterial isolates (20%) carrying two genes together (eae &amp; bfpA) belong to the typical enteropathogenic bacteria tEPEC. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the two types of this bacteria (<em>P</em> = 0.05) .&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> ALI Al-Hisnawi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Kerbala Wed, 13 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological and histological finding of proventriculus and gizzard in Iraqi local crow (Linnoecus Corvus) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The gross anatomical and histological structure of the proventriculus and gizzard in local crow (Linnoecus Corvus) were the goal of the current study. Twenty adult birds were obtained from bird hunters in Diyala province and weighed all the birds, the mean total body weight was (206.818± 0.22) gm, and the mean total body weight of stomach was 6.971± 0.33g. &nbsp;The stomach of the local Iraqi crow appeared as muscular organ divided into two parts glandular and muscular part that lined in the left caudal of the coelomic cavity, while the proventriculus appeared as tubular in form. An internal surface of gizzard was connected with the small intestine through an opening as a slit. In the current study the histological description of the stomach in the local Iraqi crow showed that the stomach consists of four layers (mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa). The mucosa consists of three layers. No mucosal glands were observed in mucosal lamina and there were many tubular glands present in submucosa lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. The muscular layer of stomach (gizzards) has four layers similar proventriculus.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Falah H. Khalaf, Rabab Naser, Khalid Ibrahim Abd Alkhazraji, Zinah Mhmood Jasim Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Kerbala Wed, 13 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Preparation, Characterization and Spectrophotometric determination of Chromium ion via Azotitation reaction and its application <p>The reagent of Azo compound Ethyl4-(5-acetyl-2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl) diazenyl benzoate (EATDB), was prepared ,characterized, and examined&nbsp; by using &nbsp;UV-Vis., FT-IR, G.C/Mass spectrum, <sup>1</sup>HNMR spectrum and <sup>13</sup>C NMR. For a quick determination of Cr (III) ion employing (EATDB) as spectrophotometer reagent, which a sensitive and selective spectrophotometric approach is suggested. Chromium(III) and this reagent react instantly at (max=573nm) and pH=(8) to create&nbsp;prepull&nbsp;complexes with a mole ratio, Job's method and Mollard's method 1: 2 (Cr<sup>+3</sup>: EATDB) for Cr (III), the absorbance is stable for more than 24 hours. With molar absorptivity ( Ɛ) = (0.935x10<sup>2</sup> L.mol<sup>-1</sup>.cm<sup>-1</sup> and a limit of detection of 0.203<sup>-1</sup> and a limit of quantification of 0.669 g.mL , Beer's law is observed in the range of (1-100) g.mL<sup>-1</sup>. The relative standard deviation was (0.742%). Chromium (III) in pharmaceuticals (drugs containing chromium and niacin) can be determined satisfactorily using this approach.The most interferences were brought on by Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II),Fe(III),Pb(II), and&nbsp; Cd(II) and suitable masking agent were used.</p> Abd Al-Hur Radhi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Kerbala Wed, 13 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A comparison between the effective and annual dose of radon for human blood and serum samples <p>Recently, serum, whole blood, and other body fluids or components were utilized as "biomarkers" to assess the levels of radioactive elements, including radon. When exposed to radioactivity, human cells' structure, function, or both, are impacted. That way, various factors are considered when analyzing radioactivity's risk and safe rates.</p> <p>The research project attempted to determine hazards for radon concentration in the human body, evaluate them between blood and serum samples, and link them to high blood pressure.</p> <p>To determine the levels of radon, 40 human samples were taken. 20 volunteers ten healthy, ten hypertension. Solid nuclear track detector CR-39, was utilized to record the radioactive values, while SPSS v 23 was used in statistical comparisons.</p> <p>The findings demonstrated that blood samples from hypertension individuals had the greatest levels of radon concentrations, activity, and yearly effective dose with 12.19 Bq/m^3, 0.117Bq and 2.94 mSv/y respectively, compared to the rest of the samples. In contrast to the other samples, the healthy serum group had the greatest value of the work safety factor with (11.45*10<sup>-4</sup>).</p> <p>Although the radon values of the samples in the air and the annual activity did not exceed the permissible global percentages, they constituted an indicator of the occurrence of diseases, and this has been proven through research that patients have the highest values. The differences in the recorded values are due to different environmental and human factors, it can be inferred from the results that blood samples were more effective in detecting radiation compared to serum.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Haura Abas Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Kerbala Wed, 13 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A A study of Thermal Imaging of Moving Objects Using Different Apertures <p>This paper aims to study the intensity distribution of the thermal image by using an optical system operates with different shapes of the enter apertures and investigate the efficiency of the detected thermal image to obtain a better possible detected thermal image for moving targets. The effect of the circular, square and triangular apertures on the intensity distribution of the detected thermal image of moving targets at different speeds was studied. An ideal optical system (free from aberration) is considered in this research. Comparison between each aperture is performed to find out which of these apertures (circular, square, triangular) gives a better thermal image quality. Through the obtained results, it was found that the triangular optical apertures produce a better thermal image of targets at a distance of less than 2 km, compared to the square and circular apertures which give similar effects at the distance under investigation.</p> Azhr Abdul Zahraa Raheem Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Kerbala Wed, 13 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Twitter Cyberbullying detection based on feature extraction and graph representation <p>&nbsp;Cyberbullying has become a severe problem as a result of the extensive use of social media platforms. It mainly refers to the act of utilizing digital methods to intentionally hurt, harass, or intimidate a person or group of people. Cyberbullying can take place on a variety of social media sites, including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat. This form of bullying can have several negative impacts on individuals, including psychological distress, social isolation, academic problems, and even physical harm. In this research, an approach was proposed for detecting cyberbullying on Twitter. The approach involves the extraction of features from tweets and the construction of a graph representation of the Twitter network. The emphasis was placed on the techniques for extracting the features. In the initial use of the term frequency in standard textual features, the features of the embedding words (Word2Vec) and the features of the tweets' graph representation of the tweets were employed first, followed by the inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) and bag-of-words (BOW). In an effort to discover the most accurate classification results, mutual information and Chi2 feature selection techniques were employed. Based on the extracted features, we classify tweets as cyberbullying or non-cyberbullying using machine learning algorithms. Based on our experimental findings, our approach demonstrates exceptional accuracy in identifying cyberbullying tweets. Specifically, when utilizing the Random Forest model with positive feature, we achieved a perfect accuracy rate of 0.98%.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hiba Jabbar Aleqabie Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Kerbala Wed, 13 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000