Medical Comorbidities and Risk Of COVID-19 Severity


  • Sawsan M. Jabbar AL-Hasnawi Department of Medical Microbiology/College of Medicine of Kerbala University, Karbala, Iraq
  • Dhiaa H. Jawad Al-khayat Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care/ Imam Al-Hussein Teaching Medical City, Karbala, Iraq
  • Hind Kadhim Mooh Medical Student/ College of Medicine of Kerbala University, Karbala, Iraq
  • Diyar Khalil Khatar Medical Student/ College of Medicine of Kerbala University, Karbala, Iraq



COVID-19, SARS-2, Comorbidities, Severity


Background: COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that can cause respiratory infections. It may affect the sinuses, the upper airways of the nose and throat, or the lower airways of the trachea and lungs. Infections range from mild to deadly. Older people and people of all ages with medical comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes may have a poorer prognosis and be at greater risk for hospital and intensive care unit admissions.

Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the effects of preCOVID-19 comorbidities on the progression of disease severity and outcome in Iraqi patients.

Method: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on COVID- 19 patients using an online electronic questionnaire in Google form all over Iraq from September 2021 to July 2023. The total number of participants was 789, of whom approximately 282 were excluded, and the net was 507; they received an online questionnaire, The questionnaire literature review was completed after debuting in Arabic after a thor. This self-administered questionnaire consisted of 15 closedended questions and six open questions. Result: < 40 was the highest group affected by COVID-19, and those> 60 years were the most minor group involved. Females are affected more than males. Most of the cases were from the middle region of Iraq. 87.8% of participants have no smoking history. Fever, headache & fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms of patients. Past medical history of hypertension presented in 11.8% of patients, while diabetes mellitus represented 9%, asthma 5.5%, and cardiovascular diseases 4.9%. Other comorbidities were present in lower percentages. The history of hospitalization was positive in 37 patients with past medical comorbidities. Of those patients who were admitted to the hospital, 18 required Intensive care unit admission. Among them, 7 had hypertension, 4 had asthma & 3 had diabetes mellitus. Steroid treatment was given to 9% of patients with COVID-19.

Conclusion: The need for hospitalization and Intensive care unit admission was higher among COVID-19 patients with comorbidities, especially hypertension, followed by diabetes, then asthma, and cardiovascular diseases.