Journal of University of Kerbala <p>The Journal of Kerbala University (JUK) is is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal which aims to publish biannually finest research articles in social medical, natural sciences, engineering and technology and other subject areas. Submitted papers should describe original and previously unpublished works, not currently under review by another. </p> <p>Provides a platform for dissemination of research findings, new research areas and techniques, conceptual developments and articles with practical applications and contribution to society.<br />The research papers are subject to scientific evaluation by professional panelists and they are published in English languages.<br /><br /><br /><br /></p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Mohanad M Ahmed) (Israa K. Ali) Tue, 07 Jun 2022 14:07:45 +0000 OJS 60 CMV Human Cytomegalovirus, Clinical aspects and management of infection <p>Cytomegalovirus is a virus DNA with an 83 percent global seroprevalence. It's cause of teratogenic congenital infection. As a result, it's a significant public-health issue. Congenital CMV (cCMV), the most public non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss, is linked to maternal infection. CMV can also induce cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment. CMV is spread through contact with bodily fluids from a viral carrier. Viruses transmission is higher after primary infection, and it increases with gestational age. When infection develops before 20 weeks, however, severe fetal consequences are more likely. Past infection does not provide the mother immunity or provide protection to the fetus. On ultrasonography, CMV can cause cerebral or extracerebral abnormalities, as well as fetal development limitation and loss. Seroconversion in pregnancy (de novo appearance of virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the serum of previously seronegative pregnant women) or the detection of specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in association with low IgG avidity should be used to diagnose primary maternal CMV in pregnancy. The effective method for preventing viral infection is to provide pregnant women with hygiene advice and education. Vaccines, antiviral medicines, and immunoglobulins have all had their roles expanded throughout time.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> masar almousawi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Kerbala Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 1,3-Oxazepine Derivatives Starting From L-Ascorbic Acid <p>In this work, an aldehyde precursor has been prepared by four subsequent steps starting from L-ascorbic acid. This compound was reacted with different amines namely; phenyl hydrazine, aniline, <em>p</em>-toluidine, <em>p</em>-methoxyaniline, <em>p</em>-acetamidoaniline and 2-aminopyrimidene to afford six imine derivatives. Finally, the cycloaddition of Schiff bases to four separate acid anhydrides; maleic anhydride, 2,3-dichloromaleic anhydride, 3-nitrophthalic anhydride and phthalic anhydride produced 24 oxazepine derivatives. All synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, <sup>1</sup>H NMR spectroscopy, micro-elemental analysis and TLC. The antibacterial activity of 1,3-oxazepines against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli</em> were studies using disk diffusion method.</p> Rasha Jwad, Abdul Jabbar Kadir Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Kerbala Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Major, Minor and Trace Elements in Cigarette Tobacco Samples from Karbala, Iraq <p>In recent years, cigarette smoking has become a major health issue, especially in terms of active and passive smoking exposure to chemicals released from the combustion of tobacco. The determination of trace elements in biological and environmental samples is very important since they play an important role in physiological processes of human and other living organisms. In this study, sixteen commercial cigarette brands were collected from Karbala, Iraq. The levels of Na, P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Sn, and Ba were determined in digested tobacco samples by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The range of elemental levels for the 16 tobacco samples were Na (84 – 384 mg/L d.w.), P (1262 – 1687 mg/L d.w.), K (16878 - 30492 mg/L d.w.), Fe (166 - 349 mg/L d.w.), Cu (3 - 10 mg/L d.w.), Zn (18 - 35 mg/L d.w.), Sr (53 - 102 mg/L d.w.), Cd (0.24 – 2.03&nbsp; mg/L d.w.), Sn (25 – 35 mg/L d.w.), Ba (7 – 16 mg/L d.w.). The levels of precision and accuracy for the ICP-MS instrument were confirmed by calculation of the relative standard deviation (%RSD) and percentage recoveries (%R) using ten replicate measurements of a "pooled" tobacco sample, and certified reference materials (CRMs). The results show a good range of precision (0.8 – 2.77 %RSD) and accuracy (90 -107 %R) was obtained.</p> Baker A. Joda, Hiba Sadeq Alheloo Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Kerbala Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study structure , optical properties of silver nanoparticles prepared chemically from Drop Casting method <p>In this research, a solution of silver nanoparticles was chemically prepared. The solutions were deposited on glass slides by pouring droplets into the air at a temperature of (333)k. The films of the nano-solution were examined by different techniques to study some of their structural properties. Their optical properties were also studied.</p> Mohammed A. Kadhim mengushy Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Kerbala Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Dry wear properties of Aluminum Alloy 6061 hardened with ceramic powders using diffusion method <p>Surface hardening of metals is one of the efficient ways to give the metal new mechanical properties that are not present in the original metal.</p> <p>In this paper, the effect of the type and size of the ceramic powder, temperature and time on the rate of diffusion of a number of ceramic powders across the surface of the AA 6061 was studied, and thus the amount of increase in hardness and wear resistance in the surface of this alloy. Several ceramic powders were used, such as sand, metakaolin, and iron oxide, with a granular size not exceeding 74 microns.</p> <p>The results of the examination of the research samples showed an increase in the values ​​of hardness and wear resistance compared to the original sample (AA 6061without addition).</p> <p>The hardness and microscopy results also showed that temperature and time have an effect on diffusion rates. This relationship was not linear, as the aspect ratio of both the hardness and wear resistance values ​​decreased with increasing temperature diffusion time.</p> <p>The results also confirmed that the hardness and wear resistance of AA 6061 samples are proportional to the hardness value of the ceramic powder scattered in it.</p> RIDHA MAGEED Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Kerbala Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Chemical Properties and Detection of Adulteration in Cheeses Sold in Babylon Province. <p>The Study was conducted&nbsp; at the laboratories of the Department of Animal Production Techniques, Al-Musaib Technical College, laboratories of Department of Animal Production Techniques , Food analysis lab in Technical Inistitute . During the period of August 2017 to May 2018.48 samples of cattle cheeses from different origin were&nbsp; collected from four different regions&nbsp; of&nbsp; Babylon province (Hilla ,Mahawil ,Musiab ,Alexandria); these samples were divided into four groups according to types of these cheeses and each group was sub-divided into (12)&nbsp; pattern according to the mark . they were group (A) contain (12) marks of imported semi soft cheeses (president, dalal, happycow, vonk, kibi, teama, la vache qui rit, puck, abu alwalad, nadec, sabah, al captin), group (B)contain (12)&nbsp; marks of imported slice cheeses (hamoda, mersin, kraft, alrawabi, casar, american, heritage, danube, almarai, pride, president, nadec,), group (C) contain (12) marks of imported spreadable cheeses,( almarai, anchor, sabah, puck, smile, luna, baf, bukah, damraran, memas, momtaz, kalleh), group (D)contain (12) patterns of locally produced white soft cheeses. Each pattern of each group was&nbsp; submitted to the chemical , in addition to conducting examination for the detection of some preservatives and commercial adulteration . The results of the study showed significant differences&nbsp; (P&lt;0.05) between the patterns of each group in the chemical properties, the study showed that there was a significant difference&nbsp; (P&lt;0.05) between the pattern of group (A)&nbsp; in the percentage of total solid substances , moisture, fat , protein, percentage of fat\total solid substances,and dry matter but there were no significant differences&nbsp; (P&lt;0.05) between the patterns of this group in the pH&nbsp; and percentage of acidity, the patterns of group (B) also reported a significant difference in the percentage of total solid substances, moisture, fat, fat\total solid substances, protein, and dry matter, and there were no significant differences in&nbsp; the pH&nbsp; and percentage of acidity in this group,&nbsp;&nbsp; whereas there were a significant difference (P&lt;0.05) between the patterns of group (C)in the&nbsp; percentage of total solid substances , moisture, fat, fat\total solid substances, protein, dry matter, and the value of pH , but no significant differences in the percentage of acidity, the patterns of&nbsp; group (D) are reported a significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in the percentages of total solid substances, moisture,&nbsp; fat\total solid substances, protein, dry matter, but they did not report asignificant difference in the percentages of both fat and acidity and value of pH.., The results also showed that there were some samples contain preservatives as(benzoic acid , boric acid , formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide) the samples which contain these materials were about (%8.3-%25) of total samples of each three group, while the samples of group (D) was&nbsp; clear of preservatives&nbsp; exept&nbsp; it was contain a starch that used as a commercial fraud&nbsp; in the (%8.3)samples of total studied <u>samples of this group.</u></p> Dalal Hamza, Emad Hwaidi, Bahaa Abdul Ameer Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Kerbala Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Histopathological effect of Conium maculatum aqueous extract on liver in Rats <p><em>Conium maculatum</em> is amongst the most poisonous species throughout higher plants. Humans and livestock are also both poisoned by <em>Conium maculatum</em>. Cosequently, <em>Conium</em> can be found growing alongside highways, purple-spotted, glabrous, and up to 3-meter-high , and branching. The leaves are decompounding pinnately like several edible and medicinal herbs. <em>Coniine </em>and -coniceine, two alkaloids found abundantly, are thought to be responsible for the plant's toxicity and teratogenicity, the relative ratio of distinct <em>Conium </em>alkaloids appears to be affected by several conditions such as temperature, hydration, period, and stage of growth. <em>Conium</em> includes piperidine alkaloids that are structurally similar to nicotine. They bind to nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptors and behave as agonists. The Rats&nbsp; used in this study were all from the Animal Resource Center at the University of Kerbala's College of Veterinary Medicine. In the current experiment, several doses of aqueous extract of conium were used at concentrations of&nbsp; 2, 5&nbsp; and 10 mg/kg to get whatever effect these may have on the liver in Rats. 24 mature rats were divided into 4 groups, six rats for each concentration and control as well. The results showed massive changes on the liver tissues for all groups in comparison&nbsp; with control. However, all groups receiving <em>Conium maculatum</em> extract infusions at rates of 2 , 5 and 10 mg/kg of drinking aqueous revealed toxic changes in the liver in Rats, according to the findings of the research study</p> eman Almaliki Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Kerbala Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Entrepreneurial Marketing In Enhancing Customer Satisfaction Via Marketing Capabilities An exploratory analytical study of the opinions of a sample of administrators and officials in universities (Warith Al-Anbiyaa – AlZehraa - Alkafeel – Alameed <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aims to test the mediating role for the Marketing Capabilities of the organization in the relationship between entrepreneurial marketing and enhancing Customer Satisfaction To achieve this goal the researcher used the descriptive analytical method by relying on the questionnaire, which measures the availability of research variables. The research plan was built according to the intermediate model, and the seven main hypotheses of the research, through which the data were subjected to several statistical analyses using a program Spss , Amos. The research sample was intentionally chosen consisting of (50) Respondents of Administrative leaders of the Universities (Wareth Al-Anbiya (20R),Al- Zahra (10R), Alkafil (10R),Al-Ameed (10R), which are affiliated with the Husseiniya and Abbasid Holy Shrine in Karbala Governorate. After conducting statistical analyses, the researcher reached many results, most notably there is an indirect effect between Entrepreneurial marketing and Customer Satisfaction through the Marketing Capabilities &nbsp;In addition to the availability of search variables in the place of application in the Universities, the research recommends a simultaneous focus on taking advantage of the comprehensive marketing foundations and their benefits as a result of anticipating the exploitation of unconscious opportunities from competitors, which will give them the advantage of the Precedence in its business sector, as well as the adoption of the rectifiers of Marketing Capabilities, as they significantly result in enhancing the customer Satisfaction of the organization, the research sample.</p> layla hassan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Kerbala Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 proposed a new approach for student absence management <p>Abstract.</p> <p>This study deals with the proposed a new approach for student absence management, the college is composed of four academic’s departments. The data entry (User) can enter the student’s absence hours in order to be saved in the database, and then conduct the real-time examination process to be compatible with the conditions that have been set by the educational institution to issue the appropriate decisions (alert, warning, final warning, taking out of the course Academic) and sending notices to students so that they can know the percentage of absence they have in each course.</p> <p>For the design and programming of this system, we used the Microsoft SQL Server language to build the database and perform addition, deletion and query operations on the entries stored in that database, in addition to using C# Language to design user interfaces for entering data and showing the required reports, in addition to writing the code for linking those interfaces Database.</p> Wissam hussein Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Kerbala Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000